当代中国农业革命——新中国农业劳动生产率系统估测
卢锋
北京大学国家发展研究院
刘晓光
北京大学国家发展研究院
4/9/2014 10:50:13 AM
摘要:
本文利用国民经济核算下农业部门价值量和全国农产品成本收益调查实物量两套数据,从不同角度对我国1952-2011年农业部门劳动生产率平均值和边际值演变趋势给以系统估测。不同估测方法得到的估计结果细节不同,但共同形成一个基本结论,即与计划经济时期农业劳动生产率长期停滞甚至下降局面相比,农业部门在改革开放时期实现了劳动生产率革命,对我国工业化和城市化持续快速推进以及当代经济转型起到了基础性支撑作用。
关键词: 
中国农业,平均劳动生产率,边际劳动生产率
Abstract:
This paper systematically estimates the evolution trends of the average and marginal labor productivity in China’s agricultural sector since 1952, using both value-based data in the system of national accounts and physical-volume-based data in the gain-cost investigation of agricultural products. The details of the estimation results vary across different estimation methods, but all together reach a main conclusion that agricultural labor productivity has achieved revolution since China’s reform in 1978, compared to the long-term stagnation or even decline during the planned economy period. The advancement of labor productivity in the agricultural sector promotes China’s sustained and rapid industrialization and urbanization and thus plays a fundamentally supporting role in China’s contemporary economic transformation.
Keyword: 
Chinese agriculture; Labor productivity; Marginal labor productivity